syntax

quantifiers | determining adjectives | group 2 | cromagramatica nouns and adjectives


Determining Adjectives - Singular & Plural

How many? - Group #2

how many... ?, many..., so many..., too many...,

how much... ?, much..., so much..., too much...,

various..., sufficient..., quite a few...

Remember that sometimes we count, and sometimes we measure.

Note the difference between "how many?" and "how much?" or between "so many" and "so much", etc.

If we count, plural makes sense:

· too many coffees

· too many cheeses

If we measure, singular makes sense:

· too much coffee

· too much cheese

On this page, you'll learn how Spanish shows this difference.


Only Masculine

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Masculine & Feminine

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quantifiers | determining adjectives | group 1 | cromagramatica nouns and adjectives


Determining Adjectives - Singular & Plural

How many? - Group #1

a..., some..., various..., no..., each/every..., both..., all the...


Only Masculine

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Only Feminine

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Masculine & Feminine

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determining adjectives | review | singular and plural | cromagramatica nouns and adjectives


Determining Adjectives - Singular & Plural

Which?

a..., the..., this..., that...,


The... (Definite Article)

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A... & Some... (Indefinite Article*)

*Note that "some..." is not considered an indefinite article in English

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This..., That..., These..., & Those... (Demonstrative Adjectives)

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possessive | determining adjectives | singular | cromagramatica nouns and adjectives


Whose? - Singular

his..., her..., their..., your..., my..., our...


Singular - Only Masculine

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Singular - Only Feminine

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Singular - Masculine & Feminine

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determining adjectives | review | singular | cromagramatica nouns and adjectives


Which? - Review

a..., another..., the..., this..., that..., what...?, which...?


Singular - Only Masculine

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Singular - Only Feminine

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Singular - Masculine & Feminine

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syntax | indirect objects | verbs like gustar | cromagramatica


Verbs like "gusta" - With Indirect Objects

pleases, interests, enchants, fascinates, satisfies, displeases, bothers/annoys, confuses, bores, aches/hurts


MINI-LESSON

Reflexive & Non-reflexive Indirect-Object Pronouns

This vocabulary includes verbs like "gusta" ("pleases").

These are verbs that always use a direct object in English ("Something pleases him") but usually use an indirect object in Spanish ("Algo le gusta").

With these verbs in Spanish, the indirect object is the first and only object of the verb, something that never happens in English. In Spanish, note that most of these verbs can also be used with direct objects for a slight difference in meaning, a nuance that is hard to explain.

Another verb that follows this pattern in Spanish is "importa", which in English is expressed with an object of a preposition: "eso me importa" expresses "that matters to me.

There are many other verbs in Spanish that follow this indirect-object pattern that require very different wording/structures in English: "queda", "sobra", "falta", etc.

Also remember that the Spanish objects "me/te/nos/se" can be either direct or indirect. In other words, in these four cases, the direct-object pronouns and the indirect-object pronouns are spelled exactly the same.

Make sure to SAY every answer in Spanish before you click it.


With Indirect-object Pronouns

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TRY THE FUTURE OR CONDITIONAL:

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With Indirect-object Pronouns and Pronoun 'Tags'

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TRY A PAST TENSE:

TRY THE FUTURE OR CONDITIONAL:

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syntax | indirect objects | other uses | accidents and injuries | reflexive only | cromagramatica


Accidents - Verbs with Direct & Indirect Objects

Reflexive Only

hurts/injures, cuts, burns, breaks, sprains/twists, bruises, scrapes/scratches


MINI-LESSON

Reflexive & Non-reflexive Indirect-Object Pronouns

To express these ideas, keep in mind that the natural wording in English is different from Spanish. Make sure to add an indirect object and to use the word "the" in Spanish: don't think "he breaks his leg" but rather "he breaks himself the leg".

This same structure is used for many actions that are part of one's daily routine to get ready: in Spanish, don't think "she washes her hair" but rather "she washes herself the hair".

Recall that in a sentence like "se corta" ("he cuts himself"), the verb has one object: se is the direct object of the verb.

But in a sentence like "se corta el dedo" ("he cuts himself the finger"), the verb has two objects: el dedo becomes the direct object of the verb, and se is now the indirect object of the verb.

Make sure to SAY every answer in Spanish before you click it.


With Indirect Objects

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TRY A PAST TENSE:

TRY THE FUTURE OR CONDITIONAL:

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syntax | indirect objects | other uses | daily routine | reflexive and non-reflexive | cromagramatica


Daily Routine - Verbs with Direct & Indirect Objects

Non-reflexive & Reflexive


MINI-LESSON

Reflexive & Non-reflexive Indirect-Object Pronouns

Remember that the verb really isn't reflexive, the object is reflexive.

An object is reflexive if it is the same as the subject:

· he bought himself a taco

· they will give themselves more time

· I have written myself a note

Calling a verb with a reflexive indirect object a "reflexive verb" is misleading and inexact.

The verbs included in a typical daily-routine unit are usually only practiced with reflexive pronouns, but they can also be practiced logically with non-reflexive pronouns. Although these ideas are usually not expressed in English using indirect objects, translating the ideas literally from Spanish to English shows how Spanish-speakers think:

· a man who goes to a barber will say, "he trims me the beard". And the barber will say "I trim him the beard".

· patients in a hospital will say, "they wash us the body", and the nurses will say, "we bathe them the body".

It's all very logical!

Part 1


Introduction

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(NO "HAD" PRACTICE)

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Pronouns With Pronoun 'Tags'

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TRY A PAST TENSE:

(NO "HAD" PRACTICE)

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Part 2 - Two Object Pronouns at Once


Introduction

MATCH IT - SUBSTITUTION

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TRY A PAST TENSE:

(NO "HAD" PRACTICE)

TRY THE FUTURE OR CONDITIONAL:

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(NO "HAD" PRACTICE)

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Review

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TRY A PAST TENSE:

(NO "HAD" PRACTICE)

TRY THE FUTURE OR CONDITIONAL:

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Indirect-Object Pronouns with Pronoun 'Tags'

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TRY A PAST TENSE:

(NO "HAD" PRACTICE)

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syntax | indirect objects | other uses | daily routine | reflexive only | cromagramatica


Daily Routine - Verbs with Direct & Indirect Objects

Reflexive

Make sure to SAY every answer in Spanish before you click it.

Part 1


Verbs

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Verbs + Nouns - Group #1

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Verbs + Nouns - Group #2

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Review

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Part 2 - Two Object Pronouns at Once


Introduction

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spanish vocabulary transitive verbs intelengua

TRY A PAST TENSE:

(NO "HAD" PRACTICE)

TRY THE FUTURE OR CONDITIONAL:

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Review - With Pronoun 'Tags'

MATCH IT

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TRY A PAST TENSE:

(NO "HAD" PRACTICE)

TRY THE FUTURE TENSE:

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